BLACK NDNS

BLACK NDNs. "If you know I have a history, you will respect me."

jnkay:

The New York Times takes a look at how complicated the US Census can be for Caribbean-Americans. For example, the Garifunas, who are part African, part Caribbean and part Central American, don’t fit into any box.

(Source: The New York Times)

deluxvivens:

This map is taken from Edward T. Price’s 1953 article “A Geographic  Analysis of White-Negro-Indian Racial Mixtures in Eastern United  States.” Like Johnson, Price groups “Croatans” in with other  “mixed-blood” or “tri-racial isolate” groups. In fact, his  article directly cites Johnson’s 1939 piece, “Personality in a  White-Negro-Indian Community.” Note too that Price categorizes Lumbees  with groups with such names as Moors and Cubans. In the text of the  article, Price also mentions the “Turks” of South Carolina. The  attribution of Latin or Middle Eastern ancestry was a common theme in  the naming/classification of ambiguous, darker-skinned, nonblack groups  in the Southeast. Lumbees were sometimes said to have Portuguese  ancestry, for example.
from Lumbee History: Racial Classification at UNC.

deluxvivens:

This map is taken from Edward T. Price’s 1953 article “A Geographic Analysis of White-Negro-Indian Racial Mixtures in Eastern United States.” Like Johnson, Price groups “Croatans” in with other “mixed-blood” or “tri-racial isolate” groups. In fact, his article directly cites Johnson’s 1939 piece, “Personality in a White-Negro-Indian Community.” Note too that Price categorizes Lumbees with groups with such names as Moors and Cubans. In the text of the article, Price also mentions the “Turks” of South Carolina. The attribution of Latin or Middle Eastern ancestry was a common theme in the naming/classification of ambiguous, darker-skinned, nonblack groups in the Southeast. Lumbees were sometimes said to have Portuguese ancestry, for example.

from Lumbee History: Racial Classification at UNC.

(via deluxvivens-deactivated20130417)

It is impossible to say to which human family we belong. The larger part of the Native population has disappeared, Europeans have mixed with Indians and the Negroes, and Negroes have mixed with the Indians. We were all born of one mother America, though our fathers had different origins, and we all have differently colored skins. This dissimilarity is of the greatest significance.
— Simon Bolivar at the Congress of Angostura in 1819.(via Black Indians by William Loren Katz)

(Source: jalwhite)

If you know I have a history, you will respect me,” a Black Indian student told a conference of New York teachers two decades ago. Her words still ring true. Those who assume that a people have no history worth mentioning are likely to believe they have no humanity worth defending. An historical legacy strengthens a country and its people. Denying a people’s heritage questions their legitimacy.
— William Loren Katz, Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage, pg.10. (via jalwhite)

This beautifully written book tells the haunting saga of a  quintessentially American family. It is the story of Shoe Boots, a famed  Cherokee warrior and successful farmer, and Doll, an African slave he  acquired in the late 1790s. Over the next thirty years, Shoe Boots and  Doll lived together as master and slave and also as lifelong partners  who, with their children and grandchildren, experienced key events in  American history—including slavery, the Creek War, the founding of the  Cherokee Nation and subsequent removal of Native Americans along the  Trail of Tears, and the Civil War. This is the gripping story of their  lives, in slavery and in freedom. Meticulously crafted from historical and literary sources, Ties That Bind vividly  portrays the members of the Shoeboots family. Doll emerges as an  especially poignant character, whose life is mostly known through the  records of things done to her—her purchase, her marriage, the loss of  her children—but also through her moving petition to the federal  government for the pension owed to her as Shoe Boots’s widow. A  sensitive rendition of the hard realities of black slavery within Native  American nations, the book provides the fullest picture we have of the  myriad complexities, ironies, and tensions among African Americans,  Native Americans, and whites in the first half of the nineteenth  century.

Google Preview available.

This beautifully written book tells the haunting saga of a quintessentially American family. It is the story of Shoe Boots, a famed Cherokee warrior and successful farmer, and Doll, an African slave he acquired in the late 1790s. Over the next thirty years, Shoe Boots and Doll lived together as master and slave and also as lifelong partners who, with their children and grandchildren, experienced key events in American history—including slavery, the Creek War, the founding of the Cherokee Nation and subsequent removal of Native Americans along the Trail of Tears, and the Civil War. This is the gripping story of their lives, in slavery and in freedom. Meticulously crafted from historical and literary sources, Ties That Bind vividly portrays the members of the Shoeboots family. Doll emerges as an especially poignant character, whose life is mostly known through the records of things done to her—her purchase, her marriage, the loss of her children—but also through her moving petition to the federal government for the pension owed to her as Shoe Boots’s widow. A sensitive rendition of the hard realities of black slavery within Native American nations, the book provides the fullest picture we have of the myriad complexities, ironies, and tensions among African Americans, Native Americans, and whites in the first half of the nineteenth century.

Google Preview available.


Circe Sturm takes a bold and original approach to one of the most highly  charged and important issues in the United States today: race and  national identity. Focusing on the Oklahoma Cherokee, she examines how  Cherokee identity is socially and politically constructed, and how that  process is embedded in ideas of blood, color, and race. Not quite a  century ago, blood degree varied among Cherokee citizens from full blood  to 1/256, but today the range is far greater—from full blood to  1/2048. This trend raises questions about the symbolic significance of  blood and the degree to which blood connections can stretch and still  carry a sense of legitimacy. It also raises questions about how much  racial blending can occur before Cherokees cease to be identified as a  distinct people and what danger is posed to Cherokee sovereignty if the  federal government continues to identify Cherokees and other Native  Americans on a racial basis. Combining contemporary ethnography and  ethnohistory, Sturm’s sophisticated and insightful analysis probes the  intersection of race and national identity, the process of nation  formation, and the dangers in linking racial and national identities.

Google Preview available.

Circe Sturm takes a bold and original approach to one of the most highly charged and important issues in the United States today: race and national identity. Focusing on the Oklahoma Cherokee, she examines how Cherokee identity is socially and politically constructed, and how that process is embedded in ideas of blood, color, and race. Not quite a century ago, blood degree varied among Cherokee citizens from full blood to 1/256, but today the range is far greater—from full blood to 1/2048. This trend raises questions about the symbolic significance of blood and the degree to which blood connections can stretch and still carry a sense of legitimacy. It also raises questions about how much racial blending can occur before Cherokees cease to be identified as a distinct people and what danger is posed to Cherokee sovereignty if the federal government continues to identify Cherokees and other Native Americans on a racial basis. Combining contemporary ethnography and ethnohistory, Sturm’s sophisticated and insightful analysis probes the intersection of race and national identity, the process of nation formation, and the dangers in linking racial and national identities.

Google Preview available.


In Becoming Indian, author Circe Sturm examines Cherokee  identity politics and the phenomenon of racial shifting. Racial  shifters, as described by Sturm, are people who have changed their  racial self-identification from non-Indian to Indian on the US Census.  Many racial shifters are people who, while looking for their roots, have  recently discovered their Native American ancestry. Others have family  stories of an Indian great-great-grandmother or -grandfather they have  not been able to document. Still others have long known they were of  Native American descent, including their tribal affiliation, but only  recently have become interested in reclaiming this aspect of their  family history. Despite their differences, racial shifters share a  conviction that they have Indian blood when asserting claims of  indigeneity. Becoming Indian explores the social and cultural  values that lie behind this phenomenon and delves into the motivations  of these Americans—from so many different walks of life—to reinscribe  their autobiographies and find deep personal and collective meaning in  reclaiming their Indianness. Sturm points out that “becoming Indian” was  not something people were quite as willing to do forty years ago—the  willingness to do so now reveals much about the shifting politics of  race and indigeneity in the United States.

Excerpt available online (PDF).

In Becoming Indian, author Circe Sturm examines Cherokee identity politics and the phenomenon of racial shifting. Racial shifters, as described by Sturm, are people who have changed their racial self-identification from non-Indian to Indian on the US Census. Many racial shifters are people who, while looking for their roots, have recently discovered their Native American ancestry. Others have family stories of an Indian great-great-grandmother or -grandfather they have not been able to document. Still others have long known they were of Native American descent, including their tribal affiliation, but only recently have become interested in reclaiming this aspect of their family history. Despite their differences, racial shifters share a conviction that they have Indian blood when asserting claims of indigeneity. Becoming Indian explores the social and cultural values that lie behind this phenomenon and delves into the motivations of these Americans—from so many different walks of life—to reinscribe their autobiographies and find deep personal and collective meaning in reclaiming their Indianness. Sturm points out that “becoming Indian” was not something people were quite as willing to do forty years ago—the willingness to do so now reveals much about the shifting politics of race and indigeneity in the United States.

Excerpt available online (PDF).

The IndiVisible: African- Native American Lives in the Americas" symposium at the National Museum of the American Indian on Friday, November 13, 2009. Video made available through the Smithsonian.

A part of the American story has long been invisible—the story of people who share African American and Native American ancestry. Over centuries, African American and Native people came together, creating shared histories, communities, and ways of life. Often divided by prejudice, laws, or twists of history, African-Native Americans were united by a double heritage that is truly indivisible. Speakers include curators and authors Robert Keith Collins (African and Choctaw descent), Penny Gamble-Williams (Chappaquiddick Wampanoag), Angela Gonzales (Hopi), Judy Kertész, Tiya Miles, and Gabrielle Tayac (Piscataway). Lonnie G. Bunch, III, director of the Smithsonians National Museum of African American History and Culture, will deliver opening remarks, and NMAI director Kevin Gover (Pawnee) moderates.

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