Reading about African-Indian acquisition of English in the US from the book Black English by JL Dillard.
Basically, Dillard theorizes that, once they were brought to the northeast, Africans taught the already-enslaved Indians pidgin English. So that the english indians spoke sounded “Black.” And that same pattern happened elsewhere, as, we already know, Blacks were the main translators between Indians and whites. The book says that this Black-Indian pidgin English was very prevalent among the Seminoles in Florida.
“Martha Redbone’s role as a leading voice in contemporary Native American music is recognized by the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of the American Indian who have collected and presented her work and she is beloved by music connoisseurs everywhere.”
“Being Taino today means relating to a reality that has been acutely denied over time and constantly addressing assumptions of Taino extinction. Despite the political and physical decapitation of the large cacicagos (chiefdoms) following European conquest in the early 1500s, the theory of Taino extinction has been proven incorrect. Throughout the Great Antilles, historians point out the substantial strength of Taino cultural traits, knowledge of the natural world, and customs of daily living in the formational cultures of the islands. Of course, the blow “that paralyzed the Indian” (to paraphrase the Cuban poet José Marti) led the descendants populations to blend in rather than draw the fire of supremacist social regimens. Clearly, cultural and biological legacies from ancestors can lie seemingly dormant while buried in layered marginality, sometimes for decades at a time, then be triggered into movement by particular historical conditions.”—José Barreiro, indiVisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americas, p. 36. (via a-lostbird)
In the Caribbean, a thirty-year resurgence of Indigenous identity has challenged the thesis of extinction. Undeniable and growing interest in Indigenous roots has coalesced disparate families and individuals and its reflected in numerous self-determined groups with designations such as Taino, Taino Nation, Taino people, Siboney, and Caribe. The movement’s depth is amply documented by scholar Maximillian Forte and others. But one opposing viewpoint deserves attention: a current of elite academic thinking that puts forth a claim of anti-African motivation as part of the Taino resurgence.
The assertion of cultural or generational legacy as the basis of a contemporary Indigenous identity challenges the historical narrative accepted by most of the Caribbean’s intellectual elite—however, it has persisted in “rooted” community bases. Dominated by metropolitan erudites, the identity-from-above discourse is built upon the interpretation of historical text; very little fieldwork on Indigenous survival either in remote or urban areas has taken place.
With wider-spread recognition of inidigeneity as a viable quotient in the Spanish-speaking countries of the Greater Antilles—Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico—and their diasporas in the United States and elsewhere, the Taino communities are increasingly empowered. This growing universe of contemporary institutions is dedicated to the preservation and restoration of mutually recognized insular Indigenous heritage. It is important to note that in remote places, particularly mountain ranges in Cuba, Dominica, Trinidad, and perhaps the Dominican Republic, actual sui generis communities tie are identifiable. Marginalized from international outreach and reflective of mestizaje (interracial or interethnic marriage), these mostly rural communities sustain numerous spiritual and material traditions of Indigenous origin.
”—José Barrerio, indiVisible: African-Native American Lives in the Americas, p. 35-36 (via a-lostbird)